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THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET OF One Hundred and Twenty Letters WITH A New Arithmetic System BY

JOHN M. KLUH

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. J. M. KLUH, 2842 State Street 1922

Copyrighted by Joun M. Kivu 1922

we (5 K Ile GWIVERSITY OF ILLIMOIS LIEAAR: PREFACE.

OTHE aa ric. iets 339 LON Libkany

In introducing the Etymologic Cipher Alpha- bet to the public, the author would briefly observe that he was, from practical linguistical knowledge led to develope this Alphabet on etymologic principles, as an attempt to supply an educational want which had too long existed in linguistical works,—that of a uniform Book Alphabet for all languages from which the natives and foreigners might learn the sounds of their vernacular language,

and of the human voice as recorded by letters.

In teaching the phonetic elements of any language, the only rational and successful method

_ of conveying a proper knowlege of it to the learner, is through the medium of the sounds of the langu- age which he already in some measure is acquaint-

ed with; and pursuant to this principle, our con- sonant and vowel examples are mostly given in idential German, English and French etymologic key words. As our Alphabet embrases the most

common sounds of all languages, the learner must

: 4890395

of needs train his tongue and ear to utter and Jist- in guish peculiarities of pronounciation which ap- pear difficult at first but a little practice makes

these familar to the speaker.

As the Roman Alphabet of twenty-six letters is wanting of about one hundred sound characters to represent the sound mutation of modern langu- ages, this deficiency necessitated the devising of new letters and the making of new types suitable to the needs of modern writing and printing, The author has aimed to keep each new character simple and distinct from each other, so that they will com- pare favorably with any of the old alphabets. The additional new letters enable us to form millions of one, two and three syllabic new words and mean- ings. It is hoped that this alphabet will receive the proper appreciation, and that with slight im- provements it may be introduced in the various

institutes of learning for the benefit of all the

people. THEA DP HOT:

Chicago, in January 1922.

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET.

The Alphabet, that is, the cipher, sound or word house, forms the elements of written speech. Etymology traces out the original word, its sound mutations and letter changes. The etymo- logie cipher alphabet has for its aim the preserva- tion of the root words, the preservation of their sound mutations and the preservation of letter orthography.

The letters in all languages represent either vowels, consonants or diphthongs. Vowels are such letters that can be sounded alone as syllables. Consonants are such letters which cannot be ut- tered without a vowel. Diphthongs are two vow- els or consonants that form one syllable.

The alphabet is an inheritance from our father - Noah, when the whole earth was oneness of wisdom and unity of speech, This oneness of wisdom and unity and speech still exists in the alphabet and word identity over the whole earth. The words of the diverse alphabets are still identical with each other, except some slight sound mutations. There are twenty-two letters in the ancient semitic alphabet, nearly every one of them is subject to

6 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

two or more sound mutations found in modern Kuropean and Oriental words. Moreover, the common alphabets have not nearly symbols enough for the numerous sounds of modern languages. The German and French languages distinguish only 20 simple consonants, the English 22, the Romanic nations have even less consonants in com- mon use. It is evident that these alphabets are not sufficiently extensive to represent the sounds of the Asiatic languages, among which the Arabic distinguishes and represents 28 consonants, the Turkish 33, the Sanskrit 34, the Hindustani 35, or, including the aspirates, even 47, and the Tai or Siamese alphabet distinguishes and represents 44 consonants, In order to learn the sounds or first elements

of any language or of word and song phonetics, we must have uniform symbols to represent them. But since the orthographies of European languages written with Roman or Gothic letters vary con- siderable in the pronounciation of the same letter, as for example c stands for k, z, q, tz, tsh, th, gh;

j stands for y, x, zh, dsh;

g stands for g, j, dj, dsch.

sh stands for ch, se, sch;

ch stands for j, x, kh, tech, ch. v;

b stands for b, bh, v, w. wh, p, ph, f,

etc,

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

These deticiencies and inconsistencies of the old alphabet must be met with by new letters and methods. Our modern numbers are slight modi- fications of the ancient first nine semitic letters. On this account we have adopted them to stand for their original consonant value, Kach of these letters may be inverted, and thus represent a sound mutation of the same letter, This principle is con- tinued with every succeeding consonant letter adopted for our alphabet that can be used in this twofold manner. By this method we are enabled to represent with thirty characters sixty consonant varieties in common use.

In the semitic and other ancient languages, there are five or six primary vowel symbols, nearly every one of these vowels is the ground vowel of two or more modern sound mutations. But as our alphabet distinguishes only the five or stx primary vowels, we have to add new vowel characters to indicate the new sounds and sound modification, Kvery primary vowel sound and its mutation may be sounded short and long. ‘The simple vowel letter represents the short or unaccented sound, the circumflex accent above a vowel letter denotes the long or accented sound of that letter. The se- condary sound mutation or umlaut is indicated by inverting the vowel letter from which it is derived. In this manner, we are enabled to distinguish by

8 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

definite characters the most common primary and secondary vowel sounds and consonants found in diverse modern languages and dialects, so that the teacher and learner is enabled to study and explain by this alphabet the sounds of the human voice that should be known by all.

It will be necessary to understand the genius of etymologi ic sound mutations, that certain letters of the ancient japhetic and semitic alphabets have several uses and are differently pronounced, so as to give to the words formed oral distinction and meaning. ‘Thus for instance y ayin is used as y in yard, as g in garden, as h in hortus, as w in war, as wh in whine, as v in van, von, as gh in ghost, as f in enough-f, as n in seven, as ng in song, as gn, kn in knosp, as r, rg in swear. In the middle of words it is also pronounced as, a, au, 0, é, y, Ow, we, oe, al,etc. It will be observed that this singular letter is indeed a sound servant letter in its ancient application as well as to its position in any root word. These and similar examples of letter and sound changes will enable the reader to under- stand the cause of various modes of writing, pro- nouncing and spelling of the same words in differ- ent modern languages and dialect.

—_—__<-<>—__—_—_

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 9

The Consonant Sounds.

ie? ND;

The cipher 7 stands for the aliph-hamza, the first semitic consonant and number. It marks a slight outbreathing movement of the vocal organs before the utterance of the vowel, which the Greeks represent in writing by the spiritus lenis, the English and French by the silent h, as in the words; Latin, hora; English, hour; French, heure; Hebrew, lor; Latin, hiob; Arabic, lotel; E., hotel.

31 p84, Vv, w, hv, wh.

The cipher 7 inverted », represents the aliph- vaw sound mutation, a soft aspirated v, w, hv, and wh, as in the words: Latin, vallus: English, wall; Heb., lith; E., with; H., led; E., wet; H., laser;

Ger., waser.

16 #y,h. \

The letter 4 stands for the ayin hamza, the spiritus asper sound of Semitic Greek words. It is a gutteral aspirate formed in the lower part of the throat, commonly written with h, as in homo, heli, hyder, heute, hortus, honey, hum, harn.

10 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

AO 5 Ys

The letter 4 inverted y¥, marks the ayin yod sound mutation, It is deeper and harder sounded than j, as in semitic words; yarn, yawn, yelp, yellow, yearn, yester.

2 23, b, p. The cipher 2 stands for the soft sound of b,

the second semitic consonant and number, as in the words: beth, booth, babel, beg, berit.

32 73. bhibys The cipher 2 inverted ¢, marks the sound

mutation of b into bh, bv, ph, pf aspirates, as in-

the words bond, Ger. pfand; Sansk. bhone; Gr. phone; Sansk. bhoto; Gr. photo.

17 PB, p.

The lower case letter p slightly modified represents the hard p sound, the seventeenth sem- itic consonant and number, sounded like p in

pepper, papa, pen.

47 4, p’h, pf. |

The letter p inverted ¢, stands for the aspirat- ed sound of p, p’h, as in loop’hole; Beng. p’heather feather; p’halai, p’halguna, E. pound; Ger. pfund; Heb. perd; Ger. pferd; E. path; Ger. pfad.

a

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET LJ

9g a, Bs 9

The cipher 3 or Irish letter 3-g, represents the third semitic consonant and number, as in the words: goal, gable, cathol, camel, gover.

33 £3, g, ge. gi, dge. The cipher 3 inverted €, marks the sound mutation of g into gi, ge, dge and dsh, as in geo,

gem, gin, algebra.

18 ¥ P, q, ¢, g, gg, k, ck.

The Armenian letter 4, a slightly modified q, stands for the hard guttural g or q sound formed in the throat by the pressure of the root of the tongue against the throat, as in the semitic words dagger, tilge; Sansk, qater; Fr. quatre; Eng.

quarter.

48 h DP, dsh, 9sh.

The letter 4 inverted 9, marks the sound mut- ation of q into tzhh, dshh, as in the Amharic word qalama; EK. calm; H. qathan; Hind. qathana,

4 ad‘, d, dh, t, th, ds, dz, z.

The letter d corresponds with the fourth sem- itic consonant and number, as in the words deal, did, lid, yield, dress, deed.

34 p ‘3, dh, th, ds, dz, d, t, z.

The letter d inverted p, marks the aspirate

iZ THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

sound of d, dh, as in the English words this, thine; Sansk. dhey, dhale, dheal, dhome.

19 @ Jy, th. The small letter £ corresponds with t in the words little, tattle, letter, hat, fat, trifle,

49 4, th.

The letter £ inverted 7, represents the aspirate sound of t, th, as in the words they, thine, with, things.

5-577, hog. k, 0; chi

The cipher § slightly modified, stands for the fifth semitic consonant and number, sounded as h in the words habel, have, hat, hush, hand.

BD..G Meee tckeg on

The letter § inverted g, marks the sound mut- ation of h into a soft breathed g, as in the hiphel forms of the Hebrew verb in German words, thus: gekommen, gegangen, gesagt, gethan. H. hebe; G. gebe, gabe; KE. give, gift.

20 4m, h, bh, gh, chh.

The character # represents the semitic gut- tural hh sound, much akin to hin haul, only the aspiration is stronger and formed deeper in the throat, as in the oriental words ham, helm; Ger. hehlen; Bengal. chhelen.

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 13

50 gn, gh, ch.

The letter # inverted g, indicates the sound mutation of hh into the aspirate gutteral ch, gh, as in the German English words: tochter, daughter; dachte, thought; teich, dough,

6 6 yw, s’h, sch, sg, sk.

The cipher 6 represents the ancient sixth semitic consonant and number. Its sound is that of s’h, sch, sg, sk, pronounced by bringing the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, as in Pus’h- to, sgum, schaum, skum, skull, shell,

36 9 w, gz, ks, chs, hs,

The cipher 6 inverted g, stands for the sound mutation of x, chs, as in six, sechs, L. rixa; Chin- ese hs in hsu,

21-3 w..s, sh. The script letter f marks the ssound as in the words sir, sarah, season, susan, dress.

51 we, sh, sch,

The letter f inverted ¢, indicates the sound mutation of s into sch, sh in the words shall, dash, she; Ger, scheide, schelm, schoen, schier,

27 7,3 Z, 8.

The cipher 7 represents the seventh semitic

14 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

consonant and number, sounded like the soft hissed z, 8 in the words zone, zeal, fizz, prosa, these, buzz.

St bY Yezh-ze 38.

The cipher 7 inverted 4, marks the soft aspir- ate sound of z,s, zh, as in azure, pleasure; Pers. zhazh, zhala, zhinda, dizham.

24 71, dz, ds.

The letter 3 stands for the z or dz, ds sound, as in the German word ziiber, Syr. zaber; Bengal zaber; Ital. zona, zero, rozzo, mezzo.

52 £3, dz’h, zh.

The letter % inverted 4, represents the aspirate sound of dz’h, dzh, as in the Hindu words dz’hala, dz’hok, dz’hilacdila-tory.

8 2 3, bh.

The character d stands for the soft aspirated bh, v, f, as in the words live, self, selves, calf, calves, love, folk, Volk, Vater, father.

SOep ial,

The letter d inverted p, stands for the sound mutation of bh, w, wh, hv, as in white, weiss, hvitt.

23 £m, ph, f.

The character / represents the sound mutation

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 15

of p into ph or f, as in the words fowl, fattach, fittig, farre, fall, forth.

53 7B, fh, phh.

The letter £ inverted 7, marks the sound mut- ation of the aspirsted fh, as in the Gaelic words fhasan, fhill, fhuaimrag.

9 2, d, t, tt, th.

The Hindu cipher ? stands for the ninth sem- itic consonant and number. It is sounded by bringing the tip of the tongue backward and up- ward nearly to the palate or dome of the mouth, as t, Din the Bengal words, talk, tank, tipper, toll.

39 ¢ 0, dh, d’ th.

The letter ? inverted 4, represents the aspirate sound of ? as in the words penthouse, thick, Syr, thaler, dollar, loth; Ger. léthen.

24 33, tz, ts.

The German letter 3 corresponds with the semitic ts sound, uttered by applying the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, as in the German words 3unge, 3oll; K. switser, wits,

54 ¥, tz’h, ash, tssh.

The letter 3 inverted £, marks the aspirate sound of 3sh, tssh, found in many languages.

16 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

10 4%, J, y:

The letter 7 corresponds with the semitic aliph-jod sound mutation, as in the H. Lat. words: jom, jad, jar; Ger. Eng. year, jura, jona, jasher, yield.

40 #%,j, dzh, dsh.

The letter 4 inverted #, marks the sound mut- ation of aliph-jod, sounded like dzh,as in the Eng, words: joke, jingle, jump, jam, junk, job.

25 Cy, g, gh, ¢. |

The character ( represents the ayin gh or ghain | sound, a soft aspirated gh, corresponding to the English gh in loghouse, ghost, logos; Ger. garn, gestern, gelb; Lat. cum.

55 2 Y, V, w, wh, hw.

The letter © inverted 7, stands for the ayin

waw sound mutation, as in the words: whine, wharf, war, wehr, van, von.

11% 5,keok

The small script letter & corresponds with the k sound in keep, kid, speak, keen.

41 ¥ 5, ch, tch.

The letter & inverted y, marks the sound mut- ation of k into ch, tech, as in the words chart, cherub, chew, chest, church, watch,

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 17

26 3, 4. kh, ch. The Coptic letter chei represents the hard

guttural kh, ch sound, as in the Scotch-German

word loch; Ger, dach, wache, sache, buch, ach,

56 4 5, chh, ch.

The letter 4 inverted 4, stands for the sound mutation of kh into the aspirated ch-h sound, which may be expressed by the English chh in the word whichhorse, chheat, chhink, chhints,

ae Soe , The script letter corresponds with the ] sound

in bull, lilly, lally, hfe, long. 42 7 5, Ih, gli, I.

The letter @ inverted 7, marks the sound mut- ation of | into lh. In the articulation of this sound the middle of the tongue is more raised than in

that of 1.

Siete, Th.

_ The lower case letter 7 a slightly modified r re- presents the sound of r as in the words ray, ram, _more, rush, rule.

57 ty, rh, gr, hr.

The letter 7 inverted J, stands for the guttural _ sound of groryr, as in the word groom, bride- groom, L. homo; E. gum; Fr, razzia, grazzia; Ar.

gazah ;

18 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

1374 Dem: The character A corresponds with the m sound in the words mamma, mien, mine, meet.

43 y#, mm, mb.

The letter #1 inverted #, marks the sound mut- ation of mm, mb, as in the H. num; EK. numb; G. kamm; EH. comb; G. nummer; EK. number; E. lamb, G. lamm, kammer; EK. chamber; G. stumm; EK. dumb,

44 +, mm, mp.

The character @ represents the hard labial mm, mp sound, as in the words G. Schwamm; KH. swamp; G.schlamm; K. slump; Ar.lammo; L. lumen;

K. G, lamp.

58 % 9, mp, mpf.

The letter ¢ inverted 9, stands for the sound mutation of mp into mpf, as in the words KE. shame; G. schimpf; E. sump; G. sumpf; EK. trump; G. trumpf; E. rump; G. rumpf.

14 73, 0.

The small letter 7 slightly modified corres-

ponds with the n as sounded in now, noon, name, then, lent, hand,

29 & y, nh, n. The letter 7 inverted (1, represents the nasa] dome sound of n, produced by pressing the tongue

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 19) against the back of the upper teeth while n is sounded as in Beng. nas; EK. nose; Beng. nad; G. neid.,

59 } y, ng. The character y) marks the small sound of ng as in the words lingua, langue, language, song,

sing, sang,

48 t&, gn, kn.

The letter 9 inverted %, represents the sound mutation of gn, kn, as in the words H. gnosb, knosp, gnudo, regner, dignus, deign.

15 G ai B Zy Cs J:

The Gothic letter G, stands for the semitic sz sound as in Fr, cipher; Ger. ziffer, seraph, simile, case, soiled, zeit,

45 5b, szh, ¢, sh.

The letter g inverted 5, marks the sound mut- ation of ¢ into szh, as in Sansk. Kaszha; Russ, chasha; Fr. facon; KE. fashion,

30 70 wn, st.

The character / represents the sound mutation of s ortinto st. Thus, H. sub; Ger. stube; Ar. taude; Ger. staude; Ar. tab; E. stave; Ger. stab; Fr. féte; Ger. fest,

20 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

60 7D wh, sht, shch.

The letter { inverted 7, stands for the sound mutation of st into sht, as in the German words stube-shtube, stall-shtall, steuer-shteuer.

eh

Semitic Word Examples.

spbs. Jatdd ma at 247 53 zadet S113 gapat gazot 955 drop sin Sayed

1 pan pap m7éyzede son gata geat 3 702 pany juny m3 kene

ma> tipe Cede un datép Nd qade

DD Giger Ty 207k oy fano

oy cunt MDD pegah MYp Yate

Ss 307 pire yeue osm tad zon

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 2

The Vowel Sounds.

The ground vowels, their derivations and diphthongs are best examplified by the vocal syllab- ary of the Ktymologic Alphabet. These vowels are devided into seven or rather eight orders, and com- bined with each other, produce sixty-four different vocal modifications to which any primary vocal sound combination or derivation of any language or dialect may be refered to for identification,

ewe oo Bie) a: 4 fhe Nad Sa ME WO Hr MW yo 8 dd da all A@ Ar at ao S aa aa aE atl AW at at ad a. cu 2a €&6 Cl £W 64 Et E0 5 td tla UE UW UO UA Ut UO \ @A @a @E Gl @@ @1 @1 GO NM Aa Aa XE Al AD AA AL AO 340 44 1&8 1610 14 11 10 Y Oa Oa OE Ol OW OA Ct OO N a, a base, a, short, as a in Ital. matto, Fr. chatte. a, short, as a in ask, grass, gasp, staff, farther, d, long, as a in father, arm, palm; It. mano. Change of a 4 into v p. pv, short, as a in plaid, bade. p, long, as a in fate, ale, chamber, pray,

22 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

S da, a base.

a, short, as a in Ger. Mann; Fr, matelas. d, long, as a in Ger. mahnen. Fahne. | Change of a d into ii: p. p, Short, as i in Ger. Miinner, Kiilter, Wiilder. p, long, as ti in Ger, Viiter, wiihlen, Fiiden. NS} a. a base. a, short, as a in what, wander, want. a, short, as a in (zerman Jewish schavvass. a. long, as a in all, call, tall, talk, swarm. , long, as a in Ger. mal, schwab (dialect), Change of a 4 into 8 B. B, short, oe a in Danish and Norse. 'B, long, as oe in Danish, Norse; and Swed. oede. v, long, as ea in earth, earn, learn.

a4 base. a, short, as a in man, fat, flag, catch, marry. a, short, as e in Ger. berg, werg, jwerg (dialect). 4, long, as a in bath, shall, have.

Change of a 4 into v g

v, short, as e a in men, any and many. p, short, as é in Fr, pére, mére, frére, léche. v, long, as a in care, fare, mare, pare.

m &, base.

€, short, as e in get, met, fetch, pet, red, wet. €, short, as in Ger, elle, Kelle, Gabe, fest (hard).

—_—

n, n, y, n,

@, @, @, 0, @,

0,

,

THE ETYMOTOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 2G long, as e in they, eight, Fr. dé, été, épée. long, as e in Ger. rede, seele, Klee, see.

Change of into 2 3. Russ 2. short, as e in Russ. ethic, epos, era, epoch. short, as e in ent, rent, lent, hell, well. long, as e in Ger. lehre, hehr, ehre, wehr,

5 ul, ti base.

short, as u in pull, push, bull, put, full. short, as in Ger. Mutter, Fluss, Busvh, Kuss. long, as u in crude, truth, rude, rural,

. long, as u in Ger. gut, bluth, stuhl, schule.

Change of « @ into ti, n n. short, as ti in Ger. Miitter, Fliisse, Biische, K tisse. short, as u in Fr. but, sur. long, as ti in Ger. Giiter, Bliite, Sttihle, Schitler. long, a fi in Fr. stir, fiimes.

5@, @ base.

short, as o in roll, toll, whole, sword, none, short, as o in Ger. Gott, Volk, fromm, zoll. long, as o in note, mode, sole, more, borne. Jong, as o in Ger. sohn, noth, hoch, wohl. long, as 6 in Fr. cone.

Change @ @ into 6, 0 9. short. as 6 in Ger. Gotter, Vilker, frobmmer, Zolle.

short, as Gin Sw. bppna, 6fver, Ofre.

24 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

@, long, as 6 in Ger. Séhne, Nithen, héher, wohler. @, long, as eu in Fr. peu, deux, seul, feu. -

5 é é base, é, short, as in Fr. mes, des, ses, ces, les. é, short, as e in rest, best; Ger, Fest, nest. é, long, as é in Fr, téte, béte, féte; Gr. kétos. é, long, as ed in bear, wear, pear, tear. Change @ é into @ @. a, short, as in fern, kern, merry; Fr. me, de, le. 2, short, as i in virgin, irksome, dirt, 2, long, as ea in dearth,

4 7 base.

{, short, as i in pit, fish, bill, fin, live.

i, short, as iin Ger, bin, milch, fisch, ich.

i, long, as 7 in Fr. cime, abime, agit.

i, long, as i in machine, marine, police. Change of i # into 7 7.

, Short, as 1 in wild, sight, kind, idea.

}, long, as 1 in mile, fine, wine, file.

1, long, as ei in Ger. meile, wein, fein, feile.

SN a @ base.

a, short, as ou in our, hour, out, bout, shout.

d, long, long, as au, ou in haus, house maus, mouse. Chan ge of @ d into » p.

», short, as eu in Fr. heure.

y, long, as iu in Ger. hiiuser, miuse. liiuse.

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 20

5 .a 4 base.

a, short, as oi in Ital, noi, voi; K. boister.

d, long, as oi, oy in moist, boil, join, void, boy. Change 2 4 oi oy into v p.

v, short, as y in Boh. hory.

p, long, as y in Boh. tchesky; Russ, my, ty, vy.

mz base.

1, short, as 7) in Greek 1to.

i, long, as 7 in Greek or a in made, Isaaq. Change of 1 7% into x 4,

r, short, as in Russ. diéti.

py, long, as eu in feudal.

y 2 J base. 2, short, as iin Turk ‘ill; E. ill,

2, long, as iin Turk. ilev, elev-ation. Change of 2 2 into 2 2. 7, short, as e in Turk, ind-end. L. zgre. 2, long, as ai in ailment, ether, etas; Ger. eid.

yp + # base.

#, short, as ou in poultry, ow in fowl. f, long, ou, ow in howl, owl, bow. Change # # ou ow into ¥ ¥. 4. short as. g. long, as eu in Ger. heulen, eule, beugen

26 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

» o 6 base.

0, short, as oin odd, for, not, hot. 6 long aso in oath form. stork.

3 5) f 0 long as o in Fr. vote. cor.

3 3 é a

Change of 0 6 into 9 9.

0, short, as u in but, Op, cunnlgg, Urge; does. a, short, as 6 or oe in Danish and Norse. 0 re)

, long, as eu oeu in Fr. beurre, coeur, ceuf.

, long, as oe in Swedish cede.

The ancient nasalization of vowels have mostly been turned into n in modern pronounciation, but where they still exist, nasalization may be indicat- ed by an inverted apostrophe placed after the vowel, as is the case with polish nasal vowels; thus 4@1, uo, y..

THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET 27

A New Arithmetic System.

The letters of this Alphabet may be used for both Arithmetic and Algebra. Algebra is usually defined as generalized Arithmetic. In arithmetic every number or consonant represents a definite value, In algebra the vowels of the alphabet may be used to represent numbers, A letter can represent any number whatever, provided its value does not change during a particular range of operation.

One of the most ancient methods of comput- ation is the sixty-unite. It is of ante-diluvian ori- gin. We still use it in the computation of time by counting sixty seconds to one minute, and sixty minutes to one hour. The Hindu, Chinese and other ancient nations still compute time by periods of sixty days, and by cycles of sixty years.

The letters of ancient alphabets are also used for numerals. We likewise use the consonants of our alphabet as numerals in nearly the same sem- itic order and analogy, by counting from one to sixty, instead from one to ten, The tens, or rather

the sixties are expressed by sixty times sixty

28 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

3600, The hundredths or rather sixty times 3600 equal to 216000. The thousands or rather sixty times 216000 equal to 13960000. The consonants

serve as numerals, and the vowel added to each

consonant gives the name of the consonant, and the name of the number.

In the table given below, the first set of rows presents the numerals from one to sixty in common ciphers, the second row gives the corresponding numeral with our consonant letters, and in the third row the consonant and vowel constitute the name and number of each letter.

The second set of rows presents the corres- ponding numbers from 61 to 120. And the third set of rows gives the first number of the sixty sixties from one to 8600. Each number of this set consists of two syllables.

In the fourth set of rows is given the corres-— ponding first numbers of each unite of 8600 up to— 216000. Each number of this unite consists of three syllables, From 216000 on, each number is to be expressed by four syllables, in the same

manner as in the preceeding numbers up to

13960000.

Rw RS ORS AO WN GQ BS SSW SOSH BS BS W®, WBA DAG RY LH

Nr BWV Sapte de tay sat

ROHS &

THE BETYMOLOGIC CIPHER

nt

> R

S FS SOD X PROM &

“2 0 8

is)

a4 29 23 Qd Q5 26 17 2d

Name. Qila QiQi 21 3a

Qida -

QidE Qibu 21 7@ Qida Qt dea

| Qi gn » Qika

dito dina Lint 2iGga Liha dt pe Qiqu Lita Liha Lita 215% Qt fa 2130 dita Qtht Lira dita QE dt fu 211 @ liga

ALPHABET

No.

1 3601 7201

10801 14401 18001

21601 7

25201 28801 32401 36001 39601

43201 |

46801 50401 54001 57601 61201 64801 68401 72001 75601 79201 82801 86401 90001 93601 97201 100801 104401 108001 112601

29

30 THE ETYMOLOGIC CIPHER ALPHABET

33 £ fa 893 2b Qita 34 p pr 94 Ap Xipr 35 G ga 95 dG diga 36 9 gc §=—96 AQ Qigv 37 L La OT 2b dila 38 F Ft 98 Ap Lift 39 4 ga 99 Qe diya 40 # fa 100 Qita 41 ¥ 101 dy diye 42 7 pu 102 27 Linu 43 # w@ 103 Qn Lipo 44 la 104 2k ila 45 5 5a 105 25 2ida 46 ¥ ¥% 106 27 di7zA 47 ¢ da 107 2 ida

48 h ho 108 2h iho 49 4 za 109 23 2iza 50 g gt 110 2q igi

Bice pa 111 Qe" Riga 52 4 4a 112 2 difLa 53 7 fe 113 Q ize §4-2000-114 224 Ritu 55°72 9@ 115 24 220 56 ¥ fa 116 2h Qifa 57 At lao lle et ila 58 2 9% 118 29 Qigr 59 & fa 119 2h 2ika 60 7 Jo 120 2) 2ifo

Swe

1921 1981 2041 2101 2161 2221 2281 2341 2401 2461 2521 2581 2641 2701 2761 2821 2881 2941 3001 3061 3121 3181 3241 3301 3361 3421 3481 3041

116201 119801 122401 126001 129601 133201 136801

140401

144001 147601

151201 7

154801 158401 162001 165601 169201 172801 176401 180001 183601 187201 190801 194401 198001 201601

205201 2

208801 216000