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VOLUME 51 NO. 86







‘Maximum’ Unit - Seen Escape Bar

By Emilie Tavel Staff Writer of The Christian Science Monitor

“I do not think Saturday’s abortive escape attempt at Wal- pole would have happened if the new maximum security unit there had been in operation,” Massachusetts’ new Correction Commissioner, George F, Mc- Grath, said today.

The dramatic bid for freedom March 7 by six would-be escap- ists from the Massachusetts Correctional Institution at Wal- pole was thwarted within 24 hours by selfless courage and heroism on the part of prison personnel and the Massachusetts State Police.

The maximum security unit to which Mr, McGrath referred is to be a separate building on the grounds of the prison, It is under construction and due to be in operation by July.

“There is always the possibili- ty of an escape attempt,” Mr. McGrath said. “But if our new unit had been operating, these six men are the very fellows who would have populated it.”

Hard-Core Violators

He described them as “escape- minded and troublesome,” rep- resenting the I-to-4 per cent of the total prison population of any institution which are the hard core and difficult to handle.

The encouraging fact about the attempt, he said, is that it shows ho general unrest within the

prison. It proved these six men completely lacked the sym- pathy of the rest of the pris- oners who remained quiet and calm throughout the excitement.

The prison population ate lunch quietiy at noon even be- fore the morning’s excitement completely subsided, and while press, radio, and television re- porters thronged the area.

Mr, McGrath, who took office only March 4, recommended construction of the maximum se- curity unit as far back as 1954 as consultant to a legislative committee on prison unrest. The recommendation was repeated by the Wessell Committee, and construction was begun in 1958.

Security Unit Urgent

“The federal prison system has its Alcatraz,” explained Mr. McGrath, “and in a mass pro- gram some kind of unit like that for weeding out of the population those who disrupt the program.”

Mr. McGrath has made plain that he plans to utilize every available method to rehabilitate prisoners. He emphasized these six prisoners certainly will go into the new security unit but they will not be “buried or for- gotten.” There will be rehabili- tative treatment for them as well, he said.

“As soon as they demonstrate our satisfaction that they can live in the prison community


you have got to have

without stirring it up,” he said,

“they can come out.”

The March 7 incident, which | began about 9:35 a.m, and was | quelled by noon, is no reflection | whatever on the Massachusetts |

. ; ' penal program or on the admin- |

istration of the Walpole institu-| tion, said Mr. McGrath, |

Guards Lauded

Quite the contrary, he said, it!

demonstrated a remarkably high |

morale among prison guards and | officers who literally risked their |

lives in suppressing the escape | attempt.

He had the warmest praise for | the conduct of all concerned. | Particularly he praised the | bravery of the prison warden | John A. Gavin, Superintendent | Gavin walked into the prison | workshop where the six prison- | ers had holed themselves up | with eight fellow prisoners as |

Army Group



By Harry B, Ellis

Mediterranean Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

Beirut, Lebanon

Whether or not the current - revolt by segments of the Iraqi &@

Army succeeds, it is an indica-

tion that anti-Communist feel- | ing in Iraq has reached explo- @

sion point.

Reports from tightly censored =

3aghdad are too fragmentary at this point to know whether the northern Iraqi city of Mosul still is in the hands of Army rebels or Ohce again is securely under Premier Abdel Karim Kassem’s control.

At last report the Army reb- els, led by Col, Abdel Wahab El-Shawaf, commander of the Iragi 5th Brigade, appeared to be still in control of Mosul radio, from which they had been broadcasting appeals. to Iraqi people to rally behind the new revolutionary movement.

Reports Conflict

Reuters reported from Damas- cus that Iraqi Government planes bombed Mosul March 9.

[In a welter of conflicting

hostages, plus five prison per-iclaims, the government report-

including two deputy | wardens and the Rev. Edward) F. Hartigan, Roman Catholic! prison chaplain. |

Mr. Gavin’s orders were that | the 100 State Police officers who | were poised outside the shop | were to move in within one-half | hour regardless of what hap-| pened to himself or the other hostages.

When the moment struck, the troopers were able to crash in before serious harm was done to the hostages, despite cruel treat- ment and threats of death that had been made by the escapists.

Firm Stand Upheld

By making the hard decision to back up Mr. Gavin's orders, Mr. McGrath showed the firm-

ness of his administration at) the outset. It has done him no. harm with the prison popula- | tion. It is understood that this | swift, firm, yet understanding |

action by his administration has_ won him the respect of the'| prison population, |

“We don’t intend to succumb |

to threats or fear,” said Mr. | McGrath. “That is as close as) we can come to having a plan /| for the future.”

Thorough interrogation of the | six men is expected to begin | shortly, perhaps today. Their cases will be heard by the Nor- folk County grand jury,

Senator Francis X. McCann (D) of Cambridge has announced he will propose legislation seek- | ing greater protection for prison | guards, asking a mandatory five- | year term for assaulting a prison | official,

Mr. McGrath said he would | withhold comment on the need for such legislation until he reads the bill, But he says he is not sure any real protection would be added by it. “It is al- ready a crime to assault, to as- sault with a dangerous weapon, or to attempt an escape,” he ex- plained. mm

| majority

ed Colonel Shawaf killed by his own troops, only to have the rebel-controlled Mosul Radio carry a broadcast by Col. Sha- waf himself a few hours later.

[Col. Shawaf declared the “dictatorial rule” of Premier Kassem was about to end and

the Ta

ee aE . PO alg Sree’ SE Bes SAC ae

“SS Premier Kassem also placed a 2 price of 10,000 Iraqi dinars = ($28,000) on Colonel Shawaf's -»*. head and alerted border units to =) be on guard against any attempt

-Red UnrestErupts

» = Syria. =. For some time observers with we, firsthand knowledge of. Iraq had Sa been convinced of Army revolt against deepen- ing Communist penetration of the Iraqi government was only a matter of time.

Appeals to People

What was uncertain and

Ee, by the latter to seek asylum in| |



| and Soviet troops there.

By J. Emlyn Williams


Berlin. Concession

Central European Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

Bonn, Germany

Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev has told a rally in East Berlin that he would that some kind| @88ree to the stationing of a neutral garrison in: West Berlin if the Allies ended their | occupation of the city. He even offered to set up a garrison of American, British, French,

| The startling announcement came shortly after Mr. Khrushchev’s surprise two-hour | meeting with West German Social Democratic leader Erich Ollenhauer. | Nobody can say that Mr. Khrushchev is not making the most of his visit to East Ger-

many’s Leipzig Fair and East


While at Leipzig he had kind words for West German business and toasted the house of

still remains unclear—is whether Alfried Krupp. At Berlin he has turned his most winning smile on the West German peo- pro-Communists have been able| ple, and especially at the Social Democrats.

| [The Associated Press quoted Mr. Khrushchev as specifying that the number of neutral

to infiltrate the Army command = sufficiently to hamstring the ef-

. government in Baghdad.

' It is known, for example, that the key posts of director general of Army planning, director gen- eral of Army operations and di- rector general of Army intelli- gence have been taken over by men reported to be Communists,

Asseciated Press Wirephoto Premier Kassem

that all Baghdad radio reports were lies. ] It is also reported that Commu- At the same time Baghdad nists have been successful in radio, in the name of Premier ousting. anti-Communist officers Kassem, has announced the dis- from some command posts. missal of Colonel Shawaf as In his revolutionary appeal to commander of the 2d brigade the country, Colonel Shawaf de- and his replacement by Col, clared March 8 that, in coopera- Younes Mohammed el-Taher. tion with Brig. Nazim el-Tabaq- In disclosing the Mosul plot, Jali, commander of the 2d

Democrats Parade ; J obless Statistic ‘Iraq, Colonel Shiwat caied om be

By Richard bk. Strout Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

Washington Democrats finally think they have something with which they can dramatize their complicated economic dispute with the ad- ministration unemployment.

Like most great political de- bates, the profound difference over abstractions finally boils

own into some easy-to-under- stand simplification.

The administration lost the November election and has since been gamely battering at the big Democratic congressional with an attack on “spenders.” It has coupled this with the charge that unbalanc- ing the budget almost immedi- ately will produce inflation,

Rebuttal Offered

Democratic leaders still are trying to meet the Republican assault with economic rebuttal. They declare that there is no inflation now and that there has not been any inflation for almost a year. They offer tables of sta-

‘tistics to prove that when the | nation did not balance its budget the result was often deflation, /not inflation.

Five Democratic senators and five Democratic House members who make up the majority of the Joint Committee on the Economic Report—in-a 76-page

State of the Nations

More Summitsmanship? -

By HENRY 8S. HAYWARD, Chief, London News Bureau, The Christian Science Monitor


One great unresolved ques- tion following Harold Mac- millan’s Moscow trip is whether or not the British Prime Minister now will launch among his Western colleagues new, more persua- sive arguments for East-West summit talks.

Some take this for granted. But convinced though he may be of the necessity for a sum- mit conference, and popular though this might be with the British public in a probable election year, Mr; Macmillan respects two important pro- Visos.

One is that foreign minis- ter preliminaries are essen- tial as an initial step in a new summit ascent. The other is that a summit that fails to produce results is not worth the climb. So there must be some evidence an agreement can be ee

A One of Mr. Macmillan’s dif- ficulties is that although his

thereby have avoided sub- stantiating rumors of an Anglo-American split at base camp.

Yet if we presume he is convinced, of the primacy of summit talks, Mr, Macmillan obviously can marshal telling arguments.

§ Point 1: He has returned, apparently certain Premier Khrushchev is unchallenged leader of the. Soviet Union, the dominant figure, a man who, despite speculation, sel-

present conviction about a

summit actually is new—in the sense that it was reen- forced and reshaped by his Soviet experiences—this may sound all too familiar to Paris, ‘Bonn, and -Washington. Brit- ain’s allies already had dis- - ¢ounted in advance his prob- able conclusions. Even before he set foot in the Kremlin, he was quietly classed as ‘sgummit-prone. Thus the past British dis- tion to favor peak par- : leys may the Prime ' Minister’s disadvantage if he - makes a fresh attempt to con- - vince President de Gaulle, Chancellor Adenauer, and President Eisenhower of the wisdom of an early get- together with Premier Vv, "RE ‘If the summit is their fixed tination, however, the

| have been careful not

‘They'll Have to Come Up If They Expect Me to Hear’


dom has to backtrack because of opposition in:high places. In Mr. Macmillan’s book, just updated in Moscow, Mr. K. is the only man worth ne- gotiating with. He is firmly in the saddle. It is vital not only to deal with him, rather

than subordinates, but to un--

derstand his _ personality, which the British leader cer- tainly can claim to do, His impressions, at any rate, are straight from Mr. K.’s lips, |

{ Point 2: Mr. Macmillan, moreover, now is expert on the Soviet. chieftain’s three

“current obsessions. These are:

that foreign ministers cannot do the work of chiefs of gov- ernment; that the disarma-

> emphasize it publicly. They ment inspection scheme is a

Brigade, and with “free officers” in the rest of the Iraqi Army, the decision has been taken to “free the fatherland from en- slavement and tyranny.”

Declaring that the provisional government in Mosul now was ‘the only legal

| the most senior Army officer in each Iraqi province to take com- mand of his province. Colonel Shawaf further warned ‘the Iraq Petroleum Company not to pay further royalties to Premier Kassem’s government in Baghdad. Mosul lies in the heart

statement—declare that maxi- mum employment, economic ex- pansion, and mbitary defense should be the true goals of the country, and that there is no evidence “of an imminent infla- tionary threat” that requires a rigidly baianced budget. Senator Paul H. Douglas (D) of Illinois is chairman of the committee.

Even more specifically, top economic advisers of the Demo- cratic National Committee state flatly ‘here that unemployment of almost 5 million workers is the nation’s No. 1 economic problem. Speaking ffor this group, iagad economist John | sul coup,

ennet albraith ; : here: Ane ‘Motives Outlined

“We would accept a deficit in| One reason stated that the

preference to unemployment. | iv , The time to balance the budget ee. en ee thes re a category of people belonging

is when all the people have oe . 'to a certain political doctrine

jobs.” Republicans offer strong dis-' which had no popular support ® ‘except what could be obtained

sent. The three R bli $ : estimate wobhenyeae prea through misleading representa- tions. Presumably Colonel!

and three representatives of the joint economic committee criti-)| © .

Shawaf was referring here to Communists in Iraq.

cize what they call the “parti-|

san political tone” of the ma- .

jority report, its “cursory and . Colonel Shawaf also declared

confused treatment” and its that Premier Kassem’s govern- ment had deviated from Arab solidarity. This could be con-

ably Colonel Shawaf—if suc- cessful in holding Mosul—could somewhat control the output of Iraqi oil.

It is too early to know whether Colonel Shawaf and his fellow conspirators are pro-Nasser in ‘sentiment or Iragi nationalists desiring merely to rid _ their country of Communist influence. A hint as to Coloned. Shawaf's -mativations appeared in two of eight reasons given for the Mo-

“cloudy and unclear’ position.” |

The basic Republican position is the one reiterated by Mr. | Eisenhower: | though it would be dangerous to

“Failure to achieve a balance | be conclusive on this point yet. in the budget can be expected! Other complaints voiced by to have prompt inflationary con-| the rebels over osul radio sequences,” 'were that thousands of Iraqi ; | citizens had been thrown in Vetoes Foreseen | jail, that free officers had been

The Republicans, whose com- | Subjected to all kinds of hu-

'clare that they want economic) expansion, adequate defense and | ‘full employment, too. But they |

dodge for infiltrating his country with Western spies; | that West German military resurgence is a threat and that therefore a peace treaty | with the two Germanys is im- perative. |

The British do not accept these fixations as valid. But they suggest exploring them | as starting points from which to negotiate useful compro- | mises or pilot schemes that at. least can start easing tension. |

| Sete Seen The Prime Minister will carry to the Western capitals

' ;

plenty of ideas—some accept- |

able, some not, But the ulti- mate logic of his Moscow edu-

cation is almost certain to be: foreign ministers first—but then a summit,

London, like Moscow, can discern in Washington some pressure building up for a change in American policy toward the German problem.

How strong, the British wonder, is the Fulbright- Mansfield influence likely to

that a logical next step if Washington is ready to recog- nize East German “agents’’? And would a further step per- mit a peace treaty with both Germanys, as Mr. Khrush- chev suggests? : Hf even a smattering of al} this actually is in prospect, a worthwhile summit might not seem quite so unattain- able, even to Americans, -The feeling here is Mr. Macmillan returned inwardly convinced anew that a step- by-step pinnacle approach is justified. No one will be sur- prised if he feels it his duty to convince his allies such is the case—whether or not they prove receptive to the idea,

‘assert the “basic requisite” for |

‘Republicans in White House and | ‘Congress warn of inflation, feel

pereditures are made under in-/|

budget will quickly bring it out. |

mittee leader is Senator Prescott | Miliation, that members of the Bush (R) of Connecticut. de-| Sovereignty Council had been ; ‘replaced by opportunists, and that Premier Kassem’s govern- ment was erecting an idol to be worshiped in place of God. The immediate question will be the outcome of the struggle between Fremier Kassem and the revolutionaries in the north. Even if Colonel Shawaf’s move- ment proves to be abortive, at least he must have had a de- and gree of support in order to unbalanced | seize control of Mosul radio. | Thus, even if Premier Kassem Democrats, on the contrary, succeeds in crushing the Mosul

these goals price level,” Summing the

is “stabilizing the

issue up, the

that defense and domestic ex-


imminent threat, declare

that an

pooh-pooh the’ imminence of in-| rebels, what has happened in|

flation, deny any automatic con-/| that northern nection between inflation and an|symptomatic of the troubles unbalanced budget, and urge; which General Kassem's: gov- employment, defense, and eco-| ernment appears bound to face nomic expansion as the para- | in the future if it persists in its mount goals. : pro-Communist policy.

Iraqi city is

All Quiet Reported

At Kentucky Mines

The World’s Day

Rug. U.S. Pas. Of,

National: Coal Area Faces Relief Problem

All is quiet at the several coal mines in Harlan County, Ky., ° be on President Eisenhower? |

Is the United States now pre- | pared to break with the past to the extent of recognizing | Communist East Germany? Is_

where 3,100 of the nation’s 5,000 miners are on strike following the breakdown of contract negotiations over the weekend. But the situation is tense in the hard-pressed area with 13,000 of the county’s 58,000 residents already on relief and an addi- tional 4,000 out of work.

Production workers at eight plants of the Bell Aircraft Corpora- tion struck in a dispute over a new contract. At least 1,500 Workers across the nation-were involved.

New England: New Try to Settle Strike Set

State and federal conciliators will make a new effort to settle strike of the Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway at a con- ference tomorrow morning.

Europe: Koch Receives Capital Sentence

Erich Koch, Naz! political leader for East Prussia and northeast Poland during World War II, today was sentenced to capital punishment for responsibility for the killing of 232,000 Poles,

Australia: ECAFE Conference Under Way |

A conference of the United Nations Economic Commission for

Asia and the Far East opened today in Broadbeach, Australia, with an examination of Asia’s growing food problem.

Weather Predictions: Snow Tonight (Page 2)

Art, Music, Theater, Radio, TV: Page 7: FM: Page6 ~~

March 9, 1959

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of Iraq’s oil fields, and presum-'!

strued as pan-Arab sentiment, |

_or Western troops in West Berlin would have to be helé&

oe to rally their forces against the |

United Press International


By Neal


Two facts stand out in the crisis,

1. President Eisenhower is taking personal charge of this sharpening Berlin crisis:

2. While White House and Congress stand together o.: prin- ciples involved, they differ sharply on procedures to fol- low.

The President is directing | American policy in this present ‘crisis as in none previous, | It is the President who not ‘only chairmans but. dominates ‘the top-level and top-secret | meetings he is holding with con- | gressional political leaders and ' military and foreign affairs lead- ers of Congress.

United on Firmness

He is, in essence, acting as his own Secretary of State, as iwell as President and com- | mander in chief.

It is clear from the Presi- dent’s statements at these private and critical White House talks that he is convinced he has all the money he needs with which to achieve an adequate defense posture both short term and long term and to 'earry the country through the | present crisis. | Many top congressmen do not agree with him. There is no dispute over whether the United States should stand firm on its rights and responsibilities in Berlin.

But there is serious and basic disagreement over just how the problem should be faced.

Said Senator Lyndon B. John- son (D) of Texas over the week- end: “Shall Berlin be remem- bered as the deathbed of de- mocracy—or as the graveyard of aggression?”

“We can no longer sit by and see our. strength military, moral, or economic—decimated by delay, defeat, or retreat.”

Asserted Senator J. William Fulbright (D) of Arkansas, chairman of,the Senate Foreign Relations Committee: “There is lack of imagination and origi- nality in the way the adminis- tration responds to the Rus- |sians. The West is losing the propaganda battle with the So- viets.”

Charged Allen J. Ellender (D) of Louisiana: “The administra- tion appears to be doing little except saying, ‘We won't budge an inch.’

The President, however, is convinced he has the military power to meet the country’s military commitments as re- gards Berlin.

His critics do not agree,

NATO Boost Asked

For example, some critics have called for a strengthening of North Atlantic Treaty Or- ganization forces in Europe ‘to convince the Soviets the West means business.

The President does not think such action wise or necessary.

His critics have called for some kind of partial military mobilization at home—just in case. The President opposes mobilization, arguing he does not want to give the impression of emergency action, does not want to “stir up the country.”

His critics have urged him not to go. ahead with plans to cut "States ground troops just


to a minimum and must not interfere in the internal life

= of the city.

Pattern Recognized

{“Some people are afraid,” Mr, Khrushchev said, “that the freedom and independence of

we West Berlin would be -threat-

= ened. But we are prepared to

[eee join with the Western powers to

mae Guarantee the freedom of the . city.”’]

Erich Ollenhauer

at Helm;

Berlin Tack Argued


Staff Correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor

at this moment. The President has replied he is not changing present plans. Se

Repeatedly in his exchanges with congressional critics the President returns to the theme of fiscal responsibility.

The Soviets, he argues, are Pp

determined to “spend the United States into bankruptcy.” And he, the President, is not going te fall into that trap.

His critics, conversely, fee that the Berlin crisis is so serious and dangerous that the United States and its allies must by strengthening their defense pos- ture make clear to Moscow they intend to fight for Berlin if necessary, even if it means un- balancing the budget.

Meanwhile, some kind of East- West diplomatic meeting seems inevitable.

The United States has drafted its reply to Moscow’s latest pro- posals on summit and foreign ministers talks,

It is submitting it for discus- sion and approval to the British and French and other NATO allies.

It welcomes Moscow’s willing- ness to meet at the foreign min- isters level; but does not accept Moscow's limited agenda for such a meeting.

It does not accept a summit meeting as an inevitable conse- quence of a foreign ministers meeting—but neither does it rule it out,

Shortly, British Prime Min- ister Harold Macmillan will be visiting Washington and from that meeting there is expected to emerge a common Anglo- American and eventually West- ern Big Four (American, British, French, German) position on negotiations with the Soviets.

Inside Reading

Furcolo sales tax bill, fac- ing serious opposition, to be unveiled this week. Page 2

Cardinal Cushing de- plores religious issue in con- nection with presidency and Kennedy, Page 2

Limited - war capabilities of United States worry top military planners, Page 3

French municipal elec- tions give Communists a boost; show coolness to de Gaulle party. Page 4

Senator Humphrey rides trail toward 1960 candidacy.

Page 8

Red Sox to return to Scottsdale, Ariz., for spring training next year? Page 11

United States team losés to Soviet Union 5-1 in world ice hockey tourna- ment, Page 11

New bridge over Colorado River spurs work on Glen Canyon Dam. ' Page 14

Syria’s ambivalence: Im- ports from West, financial aid from U.S.S.R, Page 15

King Hussein of Jordan visits President Chiang of Nationalist China. Page 16 o—

] eward the

Mr. Khrushchev’s latest words and actions conform to a pattern established right after the Bol- sheviks seized power in Russia— to talk to the people over the heads of their government. Well aware of the Social -_Democratic opposition to Chancellor Konrad Adenauer’s policy, the Soviet Premier is concentrating his ef- forts on them. For March 10 he has scheduled a meeting with West Berlin’s Mayor Willy Brandt at the Soviet Embassy in East Berlin.

The March 9 meeting with Herr Ollenhauer also took place at the Soviet Embassy. It re- sulted from an invitation Mr. Khrushchey extended to Herr Ollenhauer more than a week ago.

Acceptance of the invitation was approved by the Social Democratic executive commit- tee and Herr Ollenhauer earlier informed both Foreign Minister Heinrich von Brentano and West Berlin Lord Mayor Willy Brandt about it.

Conditions Outlined

To avoid possible misunder- standings that this meeting might be taken as approval of the thesis of “two Germanys,” the Social Democratic accept- ance is understood to have been conditional upon, (1) that no- body from the East German Government or from its Com- munist Party would be present; (2) that the meeting was to take lace in the Soviet Emb in East Berlin which is extfa- territorial, and (3) that every effort would be made to bring out a joint communiqué after- to prevent exploitation of meeting for propaganda purposes.

[The main point of the com- muniqué, according to a Reuters report, was that Mr. Khrush- chev and Herr Ollenhauer agreed that outstanding prob- lems “must be solved in a peace- ful way through negotiations.”

[The communiqué said ques- tions touched on during the “friendly” discussion included a German peace treaty, the status of West Berlin, the liquidation of the occupying regime in West Berlin, and the strengthening of peace and security in Europe,

The Associated Press quoted Herr Ollenhauer as saying at his press conference:

{“I have the impression that on the Soviet side all efforts will be made to solve the problem er and to avoid a con-


{“I came away with the im- pression that the Soviets are ready to negotiate, want to do so quickly, and are willing to have a thorough debate of con- crete proposals from both sides. ' (“Given good will on both sides I am convinced that a

aceful solution can be found.

y impression is that the So- viets are seeking a permanent solution of. the German ques- tion.”

{The leader of West Ger- many’s No. 2 political party de- clared he disagreed with Mr, Khrushchev on many points re- garding the Berlin question and an over-all German settlement.

Others Invited

[But replying to newsmen’s questions, he added:

(“There was agreement, how- ever, that there is no question which cannot be solved peace- fully and it was agreed our problems must be solved peace- fully.”’]

Three other outstanding Social Democrats, Herbert Wehner, a deputy chairman of the party, Prof..Carlo Schmid (party can- didate for the presidency of West Germany) and Fritz Erler have accepted invitations to visit Moscow beginning March 15.

To those expressing doubts about these contacts between opposition and the Kremlin, Social Democratic spokesmen reply that in a time such as this every opportunity should be taken to get firsthand informa- tion about Soviet thinking, also, to convince the Soviets that the opposition, like the government here, stands firm to defend the freedom of West Berlin and favors genuine East-West n tattons aimed at relaxing tene sion, :

The West German Social Democrats have long demanded exploratory talks with the Soviets and are prepared to

Q** ee

ys Fd


Furcolo Readies Sales Tax as Opposition Gains Strength

By Edgar M. Mills New Engiand Politica! Editor of The Christian Science Monitor Governor Furcolo is unveil-' ing his 1959 sales tax bill this) week, under present plans, amid | growing controversy over 4a) sales: tax versus big income tax} increases as well as over-all) revenue needs. To date, the Furcolo sales tax |, plan appears to have split its, proponents wideiy over details thus boosting the opposition’s prospects of killing it. | Just as two years ago, Gov- ernor Furcolo unwittingly aided the opposition by delaying in- troduction of his specific sales) tax legislation, so this year has'| he followed the same pattern. '| Each day’s delay in submitting his detailed bill has added to the | opposition fire. Already the delays have made

%4 - |

impossible of attainment the, the same opinion. They assert Governor’s April 1 target date that the patronage opportunities

limited sales tax. Actually few! now been dried up to a large observers on Beacon Hill now | extent by other issues. expect passage of the sales tax; Of course, the Governor has this year, despite the need of| wide Democratic control in both the state and municipalities for | branches of the Legislature as a vast amounts of new revenue. | Governor Hopeful |many of the new Democrats are However, the Governor hopeful that once his bill is; senator John E. Powers (D) of presented to Democratic legisla- | Boston, President of the Senate, tive leaders and others this | had softened his opposition to


week, prospects for its approval; the sales tax has been largely |

will greatly improve. | dispelled by recent public state-

Only the most drastic switches | ments. i

in legislative sentiment, how-' Other Changes Expected

. ' i eg gg bring about + At the moment* many .Beacon ory for the Governor on is | es: ,

a sce viewers expec z controversial issue, most observ- Hull wate «PRs mse ta expect that ers believe. ‘the Legislature will approve

Even many of the Governor’s some income tax changes as a closest political associates are of' means of balancing the state


t776G: Birth of U. S. Navy. Schooner Hannah, built in Beverly, manned by Marblicheaders, sailed against British shipping and men-o' war, proudly flying the Pine tree flag.

From the

o the submarine “Skipjac

, State result of the 1958 elections. But

| not well disposed toward a sales | tax. Furthermore, any hope that |

budget and adopt an increase in! ' the gasoline tax—that is all, ) for passage of his 3 per cent: available ‘two years ago have |

The two more likely income | tax changes are elimination of |

‘federal state income payments |

as allowable deductions on the) income tax returns and /| taxation of rental income. |

Even these two changes would | not produce sufficient revenue to | balance the state budget, lars out of balance. Sharp | slashes in the $454,000,000 budg- | et, as submitted by the Gover-| 'nor, will also be necessary. The | | House Committee on Ways and) | Means is now working on ihe! | budget, hopeful of making deep | ' cuts. | | But as now contemplated, leg- | islative tax action would do)



{nothing to relieve the plight of | taxpay-i|chusetts mayors and selectmen |,

| who would prefer that the state

| hard-pressed | ers,


now | considered about $55,000,000 dol- |

‘tax revenue. Others

One of the major roadblocks in the path of the Governor's sales tax plan is division among sales tax proponents over a method of applying the 274 share of the sales tax revenue going to the municipalitiés so that

| property tax cuts will follow.

Opinions Varied Some sales tax proponents feel no restrictions should be placed

on municipal of the sales hold that the municipal share should be largely devoted to improvement of local educational standard: Still others believe even more stringent restrictions should be placed on municipalities so that the revenue cannot be used to finance new operations.

There are many among Massa-


Ny ¥

oa “A

1787: Ship Columbia, owned by customers of The Massachusetts Bank (predecessor of The FIRST) was first to carry the United States flag around the world, opened the China Trade.

Deena “= tess : —-_*

a’ ~ oe. ete

1833: Yankee Clippers from McKay's yards at East Boston were pride of New England and toast of world’s ‘mariners as they sped tea from China, raced to California's goldfields. -

schooner “Hanna


a ~



itself keep all the sales tax revenue in return for the state

taking over all education, wel-

| Furcolo


fare and county costs, or one or

more of these categories, control |

of which is largely out of local hands, Over the weekend Governor and Prof. Arnold M. Soloway, Harvard economist and vice-chairman of the sachusetts Chapter, Americans for Democratic Action. squared away in a WBZ-TV debate on sales tax. Arguments Countered Many neutral

the Governor

observers felt had the upper hand in the debate, as he coun- Profe that


tered or Solowavy's argu- ments a tax would be weighing heavily on those least able to pay.



~ : 14 A = Ange ara’ Y

19068: Largest tanker built in U. S. launched at Quincy. Princess Sophie, Greek-owned, will carry Arabian oil to world ports, typifies inter national business of New England yards.

ATOMIC SEAPOWER began in New England, is boom- ing here today. Skipjack, recently launched at Groton, Conn., is world’s fastest submarine. Another 16 are on order, an atoinic cruiser has been started, a destroyer is on the drawing boards.


From the very first day this Bank opened